Farvardin Yasht – 2

Gatha Ahunavad – Yasna 31.2

Yezi āish noit urvāne, advāo aibi-dereshtā vakhyāo;

at vāo vispeng āyoi, yathā ratum ahuro vaedā;

mazdāo ayāo āsayāo, yā ashāt hachā jvāmahi.        


“If by means of this (deception of evil) the better path is not in sight for choosing, then unto you all shall I come as a Ratu (spiritual guide); Ahura Mazda has made known about these two (spirits), so that we may be able to live in accordance with Asha (the cosmic law).”

Note: 1. All the words of this stanza are not clear. The translation is a paraphrase.

  1. Ahura Mazda offers to be the guide if a human is in a dilemma of choice.


Farvardin Yasht – Karda I (para 9 to  19 – full)

  1. O Zarathushtra! On account of their (Fravashis) intelligence and energy, I uphold this wide earth, which is the mother (brāthri) of all good things. She carries on herself men, grass, water and mountains.

Note: 1. perethwim (Skt. prithwi)– adj for earth, Earth is referred to as ‘mother.’


  1. On it flows waters of streams and rivers, on it grows plants. It sustains Iranian nations and 5 types of animals (aquatics, rodents, birds, wild animals and domestic animals).


  1. O Zarathushtra! On account of their (Fravashis) intelligence and energy, I uphold babies in mother’s womb, protect them from demon Vidhātu and don’t let them die. I fashion the organs and body of the child.

Note:  Vidhātu or Vidhotu is the name of demon who is known to break the bones of men, make them ill and weak. His other name is Asto-Vidhotu who separates the bones from consciousness, bringing about death. In Pazand he is known as Asta-Vahāt and is the opponent of Spandarmad Ameshaspand. It is stated that he drags the souls of the evil to hell, but is not able to snare the souls of good people.


  1. If the Fravashis would not have helped me (Ahura Mazda), then animals and men would not have been alive in the world. The material world would be filled with evil power and there would be kingdom of evil.


  1. Evil Ahriman would have ruled between the sky and the earth and Spenta Mainyu would not have power over Angra Mainyu.


  1. On account of their (Fravashis) intelligence and energy, waters flow from their sources to the rivers. On account of their intelligence and energy waters reach the soil so that plants can grow. On account of their intelligence and energy winds blow the clouds towards the sources of water.

Note: Three natural phenomena are mentioned in this para.


  1. On account of their (Fravashis) intelligence and energy, a lady is able to bear children. On account of their (Fravashis) intelligence and energy, easy child birth takes place. On account of their (Fravashis) intelligence and energy, a lady is enabled to give birth to many children.

Note: Three tasks of the Fravashis associated with child birth are mentioned above.


  1. On account of their (Fravashis) intelligence and energy, the leader of the assembly, the speaker of the true words (gushyat-ukhdho), the chooser of wise words has been nobly born. He has been successful in the (religious) debate with Gaotema son of Naodhas. On account of their (Fravashis) intelligence and energy the sun goes about on its path. On account of their intelligence and energy the moon goes about on its path. On account of their (Fravashis) intelligence and energy, the stars go on their path.

Note: The first task is a reference to the birth of Zarathushtra. It is not clear as to who the opponent Gaotema is. Some consider him Gautam Buddha but that is neither historically nor chronologically correct.


  1. In powerful battles, the Fravashis help wisely. The Fravashis of the Paoiryo-tkaesha, those men who are yet to be born and Saoshyants are very powerful. Among the other Fravashis, the Fravashis of those who are living are more powerful than the Fravashis of those who have passed away.


  1. If a king gifts good offerings to the Fravashis, he becomes a very powerful king, as also the king who gifts good offerings to Meher Yazad and Ashtad Yazad.


  1. Oh Zarathushtra! Here I have informed about the strength, energy, help and happiness of the Fravashis and how they came to my help and bear me aid.



King Kae Khushru (contd.):

Fariburz goes to Bahman Dez : Toos accompanied Fariburz in his attempt to win the fort of Bahman Dez. The fort was high up on the mountain, and the route leading to it was shrouded amidst treacherous forests. Fariburz and Toos tried for seven days to find their way up but were finally frustrated and returned back to Iran.

Kae Khushru goes to Bahman Dez: Thereafter Gudarz, Kae Khushru and Giv went to Bahman Dez. Kae Khushru shot a spear into the fort. As soon as the spear reached the fort, it shattered its magical defense. The soldiers inside soon fell to the arrows. Then a bright radiant light came and guided the horse of Kae Khushru into the fort. This light was a special fire from Ahura Mazda, called Gushasp. It guided him by staying near the ears (gush) of the horse (asp).  In Bahman Dez, Kae Khushru had this fire duly enthroned as Azar Gushasp. A triumphant Kae Khushru then returned to Iran


Kae Khushru is coronated: King Kae Kaus welcomed Kae Khushru and handed over the reign to his son. After some time, Kae Khushru, set off to inspect his kingdom. He witnessed widespread misery all around on account of Afrasiyab. He decided to avenge his country’s desolation and his father’s death.

War With Turan: The king along with his Paladins Bizan, Giv, Gurgin, Rustam his son Faramarz and brother Zavareh prepared an army to attack Turan. The Iranian army proceeded to Turan facing obstacles like huge wooden barricades.


When Afrasiyab came to know of the approaching Iranian army, he asked Piran to prepare an army. A hundred thousand strong army was prepared, sections of which were under Barman, Tazav and Nastihan. Piran attacked the unsuspecting Iranian army and destroyed two-thirds of it. The Iranian army retreated.


After some time the Iranian army again attacked Turan under Toos and Giv. There were heavy casualties on both sides and both armies were replenished. The Turanian army, comprised from a dozen different provinces.


The gigantic Kushani warrior Kamus challenged the Iranian camp. Gudarz accepted the challenge, but when he got exhausted, Toos went to his rescue. However, even the two were no match for him. Fortunately, the day ended and the fight had to stop. That night Rustam arrived in the Iranian camp.


The following day,  Ashkabus, another Kushani warrior challenged Iranians to fight him. Rohham rose up to the challenge but had to flee for his life. Rustam intervened. Ashkabus taunted Rustam who had come without a horse, armour or weapons, just with a bow and four arrows. In reply to his sarcasm, Rustam shot an arrow and fell the horse of Ashkabus. Before the Kushani warrior could gather his senses, Rustam shot another arrow, which struck the mighty Ashkabus and he fell to the ground with a resounding thud. Both the camps were agog at the sheer power of the shot.


The next day, the two armies met once again in war. Kamus challenged the Iranians to send someone to fight him. A Zabuli warrior, was killed in no time. Rustam then set out into the battlefield with his lasso and mace and challenged Kamus. He threw his lasso, pulled Kamus off his horse and dragged him to the Iranian camp, where the Iranian warriors immediately put him to death.


An attempt was made to bring the war to the end. Iranians asked for Karsivaz, Gorvizareh, Homan, Lahhak, Frashidvard, Kalbad and Nastihun, who were responsible for Siyavakhsh’s death. This was not possible, as most of these were close relatives of Afrasiyab. Thus war was inevitable.


Both the sides prepared their massive armies for the war. Shangal from India and the Khakan of China tried to capture Rustom but were not successful. Rustam then decided to capture Khakan. He came close to the white elephant on which he was riding, flung his lasso and pulled him to the ground. Immediately the Iranian soldiers dragged him to their camp and killed him. After forty days the war ended, the Iranians stood victorious, but utterly exhausted.


Rustom informed King Kae Khushru of their victory, and assured him that he would not rest till the culprits of Siyavakhsh’s death were brought to book. The king replied that he should keep up the fight till Afrasiyab himself was taken captive.  The Iranian army marched towards Turan.


Afrasiyab prepares a defense: When Afrasiyab came to know that Rustam was approaching Turan with an army, he started preparations. He told his son Shideh that just in case he failed against Rustam, he would flee to China. So, he was depositing his treasures on the banks of river Almas near China.


Afrasiyab started making preparations for his safety. He called Puladvand, a powerful chieftain from China, to help him against Rustam. Puladvand created havoc in the Iranian army. He defeated Toos, Giv, Bizan and Rohham. Gudarz then summoned Rustam. As Puladvand was huge, Rustom could not pull him with his lasso or fall him with his mace. They had a wrestling duel for a long time. Finally, Rustam lifted Puladvand and flung him afar, but he managed to flee. Rustam was victorious.


On Piran’s advise, Afrasiyab fled the camp. There was chaos in the Turanian army and they surrendered. Rustam ordered the war to be stopped. The Iranian army triumphantly marched back to Iran. Rustam then went to his hometown Zabulistan. Soon afterwards, Rustom put an end to the terrible menace of the notorious demon Akvan dev.