The History of ancient and Modern Iran, pertaining to the Zoroastrian religion, can be roughly divided into five periods, referred to as the five dynasties. They are:
- PESHDADIAN (Pre-historic – c.10,000-7,500 BCE)
- KAYANIAN (Pre-historic – c. 7,500-6,500 BCE).
- ACHAEMENIAN/HAKHAMANISH (Historic – 556 to 330 BCE.)
- PARTHIAN/ARSHKANIAN (Historic – 247 BCE to 224 ACE)
- SASANIAN (Historic – 224 ACE to 651 AC)
The period between Kayanian and Achaemenian dynasties is obscure. The Shahnameh mixes up the last kings of Kayanian and Achaemenian dynasties. The later part of this period was dominated by small kingdoms like:
Elamites (c.4000-742 BCE),
Median (c.2458-550 BCE),
Hittites & Kushites (c.1700 BCE).
In the following pages, we will briefly see the lives and achievements of the main kings of these five dynasties.