Zoroastrian divine beings are segregated mainly into two groups, on account of their hierarchy and functions. These groups are: Ameshaspands and Yazads.
Zoroastrian religion expects human beings in the material world to be constantly in touch with the divine beings in the spiritual worlds. It is as essential to live in harmony with creations in the material world, as it is to be consciously aware of the spiritual world and be in touch with it.
The spiritual world consists of divine beings who look after spiritual and material creations, aspects of nature, as wells as human health, virtues and values.
AMESHASPANDS (Av. amesha spenta “beneficent immortals”): They are spiritual beings of the highest order. With Ahura Mazda as their head, the Ameshaspands are seven in number. Ahura Mazda is their father and preceptor. They preside over spiritual powers, virtues, qualities and material creations. Each Ameshaspand has an opposing Daeva (evil spirit) who hinders their work. All Ameshaspands and most important Yazads represent one of the 30 days in the Zoroastrian calendar month. Each Ameshaspand has 3 to 4 Yazads as their main co-workers, who are called their ham-kars.
1. Hormazd (Av. ahura mazda “Lord Wisdom”): He is the Supreme being who has no rival, equal or opponent.
Hormazd embodies the virtue of Wisdom. He created the world and sustains it through His Wisdom.
Every atom of matter and every cell of the body has with its own intelligence, and hence Wisdom permeates the whole Universe.
Wisdom is the application of one’s knowledge to daily life. It is the insight required to fight evil, nourish the good creations and fulfil one’s purpose in life.
A wise person knows the result of his actions and recognizes the enemies of the soul, that is, the vices, the mains ones being greed, need, wrath, jealousy, shame, lust, revenge, laziness and lies. The knowledge about vices is necessary in order to overcome them.
Among creations, Hormazd looks after human beings, the most supreme among all creations. The ham-kars of Hormazd are Daepadar, Daepmeher and Daepdin.
2. Bahman: (Av. vohu manah “Good Mind”): Bahman Ameshaspand looks after the Good Mind, that is, the higher, transcendent aspect of consciousness which leads to harmony (ākhshti) and peace (ham–vainti) with the creations. His rival is Aka-Manah, the evil mind.
To acquire higher consciousness, one has to live moderately and maintain balance, the golden mean. Evil, manifests itself through excess and deficiency when one deviates from moderation.
From a Cosmic point of view Bahman represents the Mind of the Creator, which had the first thought of creating the Universe. Thus, Bahman is Hormazd’s mind, and is the cause of all creations. In Yasna 44.6, prophet Zarathushtra states “It is through Vohu Manah that Thou hast established Thy kingdom.”
Among the creations, Bahman presides over cattle which are peaceful and harmonious by nature. His ham-kars are Mohor, Gosh and Ram.
Bahman Ameshaspand is invoked for peace of mind and to overcome stress, tensions, worries and anxieties.
3. Ardibahesht: (Av. asha vahishta “Best Righteousness”): He embodies the virtues of righteousness and truth. Truth at the Cosmic level can be realised by practicing righteousness at a personal level. Living righteously leads a man to his Life’s Purpose. Druj, the demon symbolizing lies, is the opponent of Ardibahesht.
Ardibahesht Ameshaspand looks after the cosmic order. The cosmic laws uphold the cosmic order. The law of cause and effect is the fundamental cosmic law, which brings into effect the rewards and retributions of all thoughts, words and actions.
Ardibahesht at a physical level presides over fire and energies. His ham-kars are Adar, Sarosh and Behram.
4. Shahrevar (Av. khshathra vairya “Desirable Kingdom / Authority”): This Ameshaspand embodies the will power to exert the authority over one’s self and others. Attributes of leadership and benign power are virtues of this Ameshaspand. He also looks after the virtues of industry, labour and hard work. His rival is Bushyasp, the demon of sloth and laziness, who is referred to as having “long hands”, since he tries his best to persuade men to be lethargic. It is easy for idleness to take hold over industrious men if they are not vigilant.
At the level of creations, Shahrevar presides over metals, which can either be hard or soft as per their state, just as a person in authority has to be firm as well as mellow as the occasion demands. His ham-kars are Khorshed, Meher, Asman and Aneran.
5. Aspandad: (Av. spenta armaiti “Beneficent Nobility.”) Love, devotion, humility, non-violence and tolerance are the virtues born out of right-mindedness / nobility. She presides over the earth, which, like a mother tolerates man’s excesses and irresponsible behaviour towards nature. Her opponents are Nāongaithya the Demon of arrogance and Asta-vidhāt the demon of separation and death.
Selflessness, a great moral virtue, is embodied in the Avestan word Spenta. Spenta Mainyu is the beneficent creative spirit of Ahura Mazda. Spenta implies being beneficial to others and being of help to others. Scientific studies have shown that being self-absorbed stops one from loving others which is harmful not only to spirituality, but is also detrimental to health. Man has to learn to be selfless. This can be done by being compassionate, charitable, kind and sympathetic. In Zoroastrianism charity is not just as a means of elevating social depravity, it is one of the highest acts of righteousness. The ham-kars are Avan, Din, Ashishwangh and Marespand.
6. Khordad (Av. haurvatat “Perfection”): This Ameshaspand embodies the striving to reach perfection for the self and the soul. At the level of creation, Khordad presides over Water. Water’s tendency of adaptability and non-rigidity is necessary for a human who desires to reach perfection. Taurich, the demon of hunger, is his rival. At a cosmic level, Khordad embodies the ultimate perfection of the world after the annihilation of evil. His ham-kars are Tir, Farvardin (Fravashis) and Govad.
7. Amardad (Av. ameretatat “Immortality”): He embodies the idea of immortality of the soul and eternal existence of spiritual creations. Among creations, Amardad represents plants and vegetation, which in a sense are immortal since seeds keeps on germinating and multiplying, ensuring the ‘deathlessness’ of the plant.
His opponent is Zairich, the Demon of decay and aging. His ham-kars are Rashne, Ashtad and Zamyad.
YAZADS (Av. yazata “worthy of veneration”): The spiritual beings referred to as the Yazads form the second tier of the Zoroastrian divine beings. They are the co-workers (hamkars) of the Ameshaspands. They help in nurturing and preserving the good creations, and provide assistance help and strength to those invoke them. According to the Avesta there are innumerable Yazads. A few more important ones have individual names.
Adar (Av. ātar “fire”) Yazad: He presides over fire, the creation that best symbolizes Ahura Mazda, and hence referred to as His “son”. Adar Yazad also presides over Khvarena “the divine energy.” The second grade of consecrated fire is referred to as ‘Ātash Adaran’ in honour of Adar Yazad.
Avan (Av. āp) Yazad: Avan, also known as aredvi or anāhita is a feminine divine being who presides over water and all fluids, including sap of plants. Since divine currents flow, Avan Yazad also presides over currents in Nature.
Health: She presides over blood. In Avesta, the veins are compared to rivers and rivulets through which Aredvi flows. Hence she also presides over health as pure blood is fundamental to good health.
Conception: Since semen is one of the bodily fluids, Avan Yazad also presides over conception and child-birth too. She bestows fertility, purifies the seeds of males, the womb of females and ensures easy childbirth and effortless lactation in mothers.
Avan Yazad was very popular in the Peshdadian, Kayanian and Sasanian times. In the Aban Yasht she is described as a beautiful, well dressed and ornamented woman. Several kings and heroes prayed to her for the fulfillment of their wishes. Their boons were granted if their intentions were noble.
Anahita was also very popular in the Peshdadian, Kayanian and Sasanian times. In the Aban Yasht she is described as a beautiful, well dressed and ornamented woman. Several kings and heroes implore her for the fulfillment of their wishes. Their boons are granted only if their intentions are noble.
Temples dedicated to Avan Yazad, around sources of flowing water were built since Achaemenian times. Rituals dedicated to Anahita were performed there. Ruins of such temples exist in places like Kangavar near Hamadan.
Ancient Iranians celebrated Āvāgān, the festival of Anahita, on the day and month dedicated to her. On this day people congregate near sources of water for group and individual invocations of Avan Yazad.
Khorshed (Av. hvare-khshaeta “the shining sun”) Yazad: Khorshed Yazad presides over the sun. In Avesta, the sun is described as immortal, illustrious and possessing a swift horse. The sun is accorded a special position along with Ameshaspands. It is the most beautiful emblem of Ahura Mazda, as it is His brightest material manifestation.
Khorshed Yazad and Meher Yazad are often invoked together, since the sun is presided over by the former, and the latter presides over sun light. In Vedas, numerous hymns are dedicated to Surya and Mitra, deities presiding over the Sun and sun light.
The Gayatri Mantra, one of the most sacred hymns for the Hindus, and their daily obligatory prayer, is dedicated to the Sun.
Khorshed Yazad has to be daily invoked as part of the Farazyat bandagi for getting Khoreh “Divine energy” and Divine Intelligence.
12. Mohor (Av. māh / māongh “the moon.”) Yazad: Mohor Yazad presides over the moon. He is further described as bakhtār “bestower of luck and destiny.” He also bestows fortune (raya), and divine energy (khvarena).
The moon is connected to fluids in the human body and on the earth. All liquids like sap, menstrual flow, blood, fluid in the brain cavity are thus connected to the moon. The ebb and tide of waters in the sea are influenced by the moon, and so is the human mind, since the brain is surrounded by fluid.
The Avestan tradition believes that the moon was originally a part of the earth, which is evident from the adjective gao-chithra “having origin in the earth” associated with the moon.
Zoroastrian traditions advise that Mah Yazad has to be invoked at least thrice in the month – on No Moon day (Amās), new moon day (Chāndrāt) and full moon day (Punam).
13. Tir (Av. tishtrya “radiant”) Yazad: He presides over stars in general and the star Sirius in particular. The star Sirius, in the constellation of Canis Major, is considered the leader among all the stars, and is the star of the Eastern sky. According to Zoroastrian religion, the other three major stars are Vanant in the West, Satavaesa in the South and Haptoiring (Ursa Major) in the North.
Tir Yazad also presides over rain. While describing the phenomenon of rainfall in the Tir Yasht, it is stated that Tir Yazad in the form of a white horse battles Apaosha, the demon of drought, who appears in the form of a black horse, and when Tir Yazad overcomes Apaosha with the help of the prayers of the people of the world, the world gets rain.
Tir Yazad is also connected with eyes and hence presides over healthy eyesight. He is identified with planet mercury which is associated with oratory and communication skills.
14. Gosh (Av. geush urvan “soul of the earth”) Yazad: He presides over the earth and cattle. Gosh Yazad lamented to Ahura Mazda about atrocities on the earth, in response to which Ahura Mazda sent prophet Zarathushtra to earth.
Gosh Yazad’s associated Dravasp Yazad looks after children, their well-being and their nurturing.
16. Meher (Av. Mithra “contract”) Yazad: Meher Yazad presides over many things including cosmic lights, friendship, justice, contract and love. Since he is associated with cosmic lights, including the sun light, he is also associated with Khorshed Yazad who presides over the Sun.
He looks after the atmosphere and the various layers in space.
He presides over partnerships, and on account of presiding over partnerships, he is present wherever two parties are involved, like contracts, promises, justice, friendship and rituals. He is one of the judges at the time of the judgement of the soul on the dawn of the 4th day after death.
As Meher Yazad presides over two parties, in ancient Iran he was invoked before and during wars. Thus Meher Yazad became a favourite of the Kings, and allied royal qualities like courage, bravery and chivalry.
Meher Yazad is the chief of Havan geh, the morning period, which is the preferred time for performance of rituals. Hence he presides over rituals too. The place where rituals are performed is referred to as a Dar-e-Meher “House of Meher” and hence fire-temples are also referred to as Dar-e-Mehers.
When Roman soldiers came in contact with the Parthians, they were attracted to Meher Yazad and started to invoke him before wars. When they returned home they continued this practice, which later developed into the cult of Mithraism.
Mithraism entered Rome in 2nd century B.C. and from there spread to European countries under Roman domination. It later spread to Asia Minor, Cappadocia, Armenia and Greece. Mithraism greatly influenced the Roman, Assyrian and Babylonian civilizations. Mithraism started with the poor people and gradually spread upwards in society. It gained a footing in Rome under Emperor Domition (52- 96), Emperor Trajan (c. 100 CE) and Emperor Comodus (c. 190 CE).
Mithra temples were erected and statues of Mithra were set up. The Mithraeum (Mithra temple) was either an adapted natural cave or cavern, or a building imitating a cave. The majority of such temples are found underground. The ruins of these temples have been discovered in Italy and England. Various sculptures were engraved to represent Mithra. Regular ceremonies were performed in his honour, which later took the form of mystic rites. Elements of animal sacrifice crept into this form of worship, and hence the rites were prohibited in 378 A.C.
In name and function, Meher Yazad (Mithra) is closely related with the Vedic God Mitra. Etymologically, both these names mean “contract.” Hence most of their functions and attributes can be traced back to this original function. St. Michael of the Catholic Church has attributes and functions similar to Mithra.
17. Sarosh (Av. sraosha “obedience”) Yazad: Sarosh Yazad is regarded the highest Zoroastrian divine being in the material world. He is referred to as sālār-ī-dāmān “the commander of the creations.” Ahura Mazda entrusted him the mastery over the material world and the task of protecting the creations. Sarosh Yazad fosters obedience among the creations about divine laws. His rival is Aeshma, the demon of anger and disobedience.
Sarosh Yazad brings divine guidance from Ahura Mazda. He guided holy men like Gayomard, Jamshed and Faridun. He led prophet Zarathushtra to the Divine Revelation and brought the Gathas “celestial songs” to Zarathushtra.
An important function of Sarosh Yazad is to protect the souls of the living as well as the dead. After death, when the soul leaves the body, its state is like that of a new born child. Sarosh Yazad protects the soul for the first three days, till its Judgement on the dawn of the fourth day after death. He accompanies the soul across the Chinwad Bridge and is present at the time of the Judgement.
Sarosh Yazad is referred to as tanu-manthra “incarnation of Manthra-words of prayers.” He is intimately connected with prayers. He is invoked before starting other prayers, by the recitation of the Srōsh bāj. This connection of Sarosh Yazad with Mānthra is one of the reasons why he is accorded a central position in the devotional life of Zoroastrians. Rooster is the symbol of Sarosh Yazad, as it wakes up man from sleep in the morning to remind him to pray.
Sarosh Yazad is accorded the singular honour of having two Yashts (invocatory prayers) dedicated to him, one, the Sarosh Yasht Vadi, is to be recited as the obligatory prayer for the Aiwisruthrm Geh and the other, Sarosh Yasht Hadokht, is to be recited in the other four Gehs for invocation of Sarosh Yazad.
Sarosh Yazad presides over the 5 senses, and hence he is associated with number five in the Avesta. This is the reason why Sarosh Yazad is invoked before the prayer of repentance (Patet Pashemani), since sins are committed through the five senses.
Sarosh Yazad is the most powerful Yazad against evil, especially at night time. He is to be remembered at night by saying the words Sarosh Yazad Panāhbād before going to bed.
The divine beings Gibrael and Gabriel of the Islamic and Catholics faiths respectively have functions and attributes similar to Sarosh Yazad.
18) Rashna (Av. rashnu “orderly”): He presides over “rectitude, order and truth.” His special designation is rāst “most upright.” As an associate of Amardad Ameshaspand, he is linked with man’s hope for ultimate salvation. He is one of the main judges of the soul at the time of its Judgment on the dawn of the 4th day after death. In his work as a judge he is connected with Ashtad Yazad.
19) Fravardin (Av. fravashi; Phl. fravahar/farohar “Guardian spirit”): Fravashis were created as divine prototypes of creations when the spiritual world was first created. They have cosmic as well as personal functions. At a cosmic level, they help Ahura Mazda in the process of creating and nurturing the universe, and looking after all creations. At a personal level they act as the Guardian spirits of men, helping them during life, as well as after death. The Fravashi is one of the three spiritual constituents of a human, the other two being baodhangh “divine intellect” and urvan “soul.”
20. Behram (Av. verethraghna “victorious”) Yazad: He presides over success and victory. He bestows courage and confidence to people working for a righteous cause. His Avestan name verethraghna, is cognate with the Sanskrit word Shatrughna which means “smiter of opponents.”
The other titles of Behram Yazad are Pirozgar, Phirozgar and fattehmand which means “victorious”, dushman jadār which means “smiter of enemies”, and mushkel āsān which means “reliever of difficulties.”
Behram Yazad is almost always remembered with his two associate Yazads – Ama Yazad who presides over courage and Vanainti who presides over excellence. Behram Yazad’s chief opponent is Vyambur daeva.
In the prayer Behram Yasht, Behram Yazad is shown to assume ten different forms to reach to the aid of those who invoke him. He appears as wind, bull, horse, camel, boar, youth, falcon, ram, buck and man.
Behram Yazad also presides over traveling. Hence he is invoked before embarking on a journey. For this reason, Behram Yazad is also known as Panth Yazad, which means “the Yazad for the path”.
Behram Yazad is associated with the planet Mars, the red planet, which is the planet of wars. The planet shares some of the martial qualities of Behram Yazad.
Behram Yazad is a ham-kar of Ardibahesht Ameshaspand, and is referred to as baro-khareno “carrier of divine energy”, since carrying divine energies is one of the functions of fire.
Atash Behram, the highest category of fire is named after Behram Yazad. It is consecrated by collecting, purifying and consecrating fires from 16 sources. The first Atash Behram in India was built as a mark of thanksgiving to Behram Yazad, for successfully overcoming a sea-storm on the way from Diu to Sanjan. In Iran, several Sasanian kings built Atash Behrams after their victories in wars.
21. Rām (Av. rāman “joy”) Yazad : He presides over joy, pleasure and domestic happiness. He is invoked at the time of marriage. He also looks after the space between the earth and the sky and in this respect is a co-worker of Meher Yazad. He is invoked on the fourth day after death to seek a safe passage for the soul to the other world.
Vāyu Yazad is a co-worker of Rām Yazad. He is described as travelling in a golden chariot with golden wheels. He presides over the space between the earth and the sky – the path which the souls of the departed ones have to travel on the dawn of the fourth day to reach the other world. In the Indo Iranian period, Vayu was revered by both the Indians and the Iranians. In the Rig Veda, Vayu presides over the wind and is shown traveling swiftly in a chariot drawn by horses.
22. Govād (Av. vāta “wind”) Yazad: He is the Yazad presiding over wind and air. In Pahlavi he is referred to as Wāe-i-Weh “the good wind.”As a hamkār of Khordad and Tir, he assists in the phenomenon of rainfall by scattering the clouds.
His opponent is Wāe-i- vattar, which means “the bad wind.”
24. Din (Av. daenā “conscience, religion, divine knowledge”) Yazad: This Yazata presides over religion and religious conscience. The Vedic equivalent of Din Yazad is goddess Saraswati. In the past, Zoroastrians used to begin their children’s education on this day.
The term daena is also used for the collective actions of a soul since our actions depend on our religious knowledge and conscience.
25. Mino Ashishvangh (Av. ashi vanghuhi “good blessing”) Yazad: She presides over divine blessings acquired on account of one’s goodness. She is associated with material as well as spiritual wealth.
The Vedic equivalent of Ashishwangh is Goddess lakhshmi. In modern times Ashishvangh is associated more with material than spiritual wealth, just as goddess lakhshmi is now identified more with worldly wealth, though originally, in the Vedas, she stood mainly for spiritual wealth. Ard-okhsho, the Indo-Scythian (1st – 3rd c. AC) goddess of plenty, is also connected to Ashishwangh.
Pārendi Yazad (Sk. Purandhi) is a co-worker of Ashishwangh Yazad. She bestows wealth, plenty and prosperity. Zoroastrianism has a tradition of invoking her for ensuring financial security by repeatedly reciting the line Yā vanghu-dāo vanghuhim Pārendim yazamaide.
26. Ashtad (Av. arshtāt “rectitude”) Yazad: This Yazad presides over truthfulness, virtue and promoting spiritual welfare of the world. As an associate of Amardad he is linked with man’s hope for salvation.
He is one of the judges of the soul at the time of its judgment on the dawn of the 4th day after death. In his work as a judge he works along with Rashna Yazad.
27. Mino Asman (Av. asmana “the sky”) Yazad: This Yazata presides over the lofty, shining sky, which is also considered a pathway to Heaven.
28. Zamyad (Av. zemo “earth”) Yazad: He presides over the earth and mountains. It also presides over Khoreh “divine energy”, especially the Kayan Khoreh which is specially for kings.
29. Mino Mahraspand (Av. manthra spenta “beneficent prayer”) Yazad: This Yazad presides over the Holy Words of Prayers. He is a giver of abundant Khoreh “divine energy”. He presides over divine knowledge and wisdom of both types – acquired from outside and generated from within. He also presides over customs and traditions of the religion.
30) Mino Aneran (Av. anaghra raochah “endless lights”) Yazad: Originally anaghra raochah. He is the Yazad presiding over “endless lights” which is associated with the different heavenly bodies and is associated with the following stations in the divine world:
a. Raokhshna garonmāna “radiant House of Song” – the highest heaven, the house of Ahura Mazda.
b. Misvāna gātu also known as hamestagan “purgatory” – the middle place for souls whose sins and virtues are balanced.
c. Chinvato peretu “the bridge of selection” – the allegorical Chinwad Pul which all souls have to cross on the– dawn of Chahrom -the fourth day after death – to reach the spiritual dimension.
31. Borz (Av. berez “exalted”) Yazad: He is a lesser known Yazad. He is not a part of the 30 days of the Zoroastrian calendar month, but he is among the 33 Fareshtas. He is connected with the energy of Ahura Mazda and also with the source of waters. He is the main Yazad presiding over the third watch of the day, Uziran Geh. Apam-Napat Yazad is the associate of Borz Yazad.
32. Hom (Av. haoma) Yazad: Hom Yazad, though not part of the 30 day calendar, is one of the very important Yazads to whom a Yasht is dedicated. He is the giver of boons of health and long life. He also presides over herbs and medicinal plants.
Hom Yazad is invoked for healthy and intelligent children. Four great men before prophet Zarathushtra, Vivanghat, Asrat, Thrit and Pourushaspa, worshipped him and had illustrious children Jamshed, Faredun, Kersasp and prophet Zarathushtra born to them. Zarathushtra himself prayed to Hom Yazad before becoming a prophet.
Hom Yazad presides over medicinal plants in general and on the plant haoma in particular, which is referred to in the Avesta as haoma zairi “the yellow haoma”. Twigs of this plant were used in the ancient haoma ritual. In the present times, twigs of this plant are used in the Yasna ritual to prepare the ‘hom juice’. This plant has properties of keeping away illnesses and death.
In the Vedic tradition, there is a god called Som and there is also a ritual by the name of Som ritual. Priests in the Som ritual used to prepare a drink from the plant named Som. In both the Iranian and Indian traditions, it is stated that this plant grows on mountains and is descended from heaven for healing men. Biologically this plant is identified with the species ephedra.
The word Hom also refers to a spiritual person of Kayanian times, who is given the status of a Saoshyant “benefactor”. He helped king Kae Khushru to capture the evil Turanian king Afrasiyab.
33. Daham (Av. dahma “good blessing”) Yazad: Daham Yazad is the divine being who presides over blessings of happiness, peace and prosperity for the house and for the world. He is the 33rd Faresta. He is always invoked when a Jashan is performed and his blessings are sought for happiness, peace and harmony in the house.
Daham Yazad also performs the task of keeping the physical constituents of each and every human being after death. Symbolically these constituents are handed over to Daham Yazad at the dawn of the fourth day, who then gives them back in a spiritual form to every individual soul at the apocalyptic event of Tan-e-pasen, just before Frashokereti.
Airyaman (“noble mind”) Yazad: Though Airyaman Yazad is not a part of the divine beings associated with the calendar, he is an important Yazad, and the chief associate of Ardibahesht Ameshaspand.
He presides over Friendship, marriage, brotherhood and harmony which are all related. He is especially invoked during the Marriage ritual.
He also looks after health and healing. In fact he is the principle healing Yazad. One full chapter of the Vendidad (Ch. 22) and Yasna (Ch. 54) are dedicated to him.
Vanant (“conquering”) Yazad: He presides over the star Vanant, which is regarded as chieftain of the West and identified with the star Vega or Antares.
His work is to smite noxious creatures (Av. xrafstar) and spiritual evils. He also prevents evil from obstructing the work of good spiritual beings. Along with Satavaesa and Haptoiring, Vanant is one of the main co-workers of Tir Yazad.
Vanant Yazad is also invoked to counter black magic, sorcery and elemental evils.
Other Yazads: Apart from the above principal Yazads, there are other Yazads like Saoka, Nairyosang and Sura, who are mentioned by name, but about whom we do not know much. Moreover divine beings presiding over the 5 Gehs, the 5 Gathas and 6 Gahambars are also Yazads.
Thus, there are innumerable Yazads working in the material and spiritual worlds, but about 50 of them are mentioned by name, who are referred to as aokhto nāmano yazatahe in the Avesta.